Having one person ultimately responsible for everything in a paper is a fine idea. I conducted most of the experiments and wrote many of the sections. Correspondingly, should all authors bear equal responsibility if any part of a manuscript is later found to depend on falsified or fabricated data?
While it is widely agreed that authorship should be based on a substantial contribution, reasonable people can differ considerably over the definitions of both 'substantial' and 'contribution.
The level of detail varies between the disciplines. Growing number of authors per paper[ edit ] From the late 17th century to the s, sole authorship was the norm, and the one-paper-one-author model worked well for distributing credit. Incorrect application of authorship rules occasionally leads to charges of academic misconduct and sanctions for the violator.
Financial pressures on universities have encouraged this type of misconduct. However, the need to describe contributions can at least be expected to somewhat reduce honorary authorships.
Last week, our advisor handed us the final draft of a paper based on a project that has been my primary responsibility. Hence, the system rewards heavily multi-authored papers. Yank V, Rennie D This is witnessed by the somewhat rough and inexpert execution of the katholikon, as well as his several readjustments of the church design during the construction, the best known being the addition of the two lateral conches to the naos, in order to better accommodate choirs of chanters.
Those who earn less than points are acknowledged in a footnote. Athanasius the Athonite and the Katholikon of His Great Lavra Middle Byzantine monastic churches predominantly feature a cross-in-square naos with a three-bayed narthex.
Her name had appeared in acknowledgment sections before, but that was the first time she was listed as an author—and she was first on the author list. Furthermore, having guidelines allows opportunity for appeal and arbitration.
Writers who work in this capacity are called ghostwriters. Authors are also commonly required to provide information about ethical aspects of research, particularly where research involves human or animal participants or use of biological material.
He decided to spell out his system for future collaborators. To my surprise, the senior student in our lab, who was away at conferences and at the library writing up her thesis while most of the experiments were being performed, was listed as the first author.Because authorship does not communicate what contributions qualified an individual to be an author, some journals now request and publish information about the contributions of each person named as having participated in a submitted study, at.
of authorship on journal papers and other products is as much art as science; key elements are mutual respect, open communication, and a desire to be fair to all parties. If a contributor's authorship is in question, it can help to consider what the paper would have looked like without their efforts, and whether someone else could have made the same contribution.
Familiarize yourself with your institution's or journal's authorship guidelines, or those of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
Conventions of Scientific Authorship By Vijaysree Venkatraman Apr. 16,AM Pardis Sabeti published her first scientific paper when she was an undergraduate at the Massachusetts. Determining and negotiating authorship. Authorship of research papers: ethical and professional issues for short-term researchers.
Journal of Medical Ethics, 32(7), Oberlander, S. E., & Spencer, R. J.
(). Graduate students and the culture of authorship. Academic authorship of journal articles, books, and other original works is a means by which academics communicate the results of their scholarly work, establish priority for their discoveries, and build their reputation among their peers.Download